En janvier 1959, le Soudan français (actuel Mali) et le Sénégal fusionnent pour former la Fédération du Mali, qui devient complètement indépendante le 20juin1960. Cette indépendance est la conséquence des transferts de pouvoirs convenus dans l'accord signé en France le 4avril1960. Cette date est considérée comme le jour officiel d'accession du Sénégal à l'indépendance.
Senegal (i/ˌsɛnɪˈɡɔːl/; French: le Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal (République du Sénégal, IPA: [ʁepyblik dy seneɡal]), is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. It owes its name to the river that borders it to the East and North and that originates from the Fouta Djallon in Guinea. Senegal is externally bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Mauritania to the north, Mali to the east, and Guinea and Guinea-Bissau to the south; internally it almost completely surrounds The Gambia, namely on the north, east and south, exempting Gambia's short Atlantic Ocean coastline. Senegal covers a land area of almost 197,000 square kilometres (76,000 sq mi), and has an estimated population of about 14 million. The climate is tropical with two seasons: the dry season and the rainy season.
In January 1959 Senegal and the French Sudan merged to form the Mali Federation, which became fully independent on 20 June 1960, as a result of the independence and the transfer of power agreement signed with France on 4 April 1960. Due to internal political difficulties, the Federation broke up on 20 August.